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As Bertha Chin explains, "The rise of social media…incited the media industry to engage with their core audiences more creatively in order to maintain the loyalty and interest of the consumers," allowing "media industry professionals…and fans to co-exist within the same symbolic space" , However, like fan conventions, this event relocates these interactions from symbolic to physical spaces.
Though increased interaction between fans and producers is hardly novel in an era of integrated marketing, social media, and fan conventions, the move to a physical space is relatively new one for Teen Wolf. The creative team has attended a fair number of fan conventions and awards shows, but the team has rarely interacted with fans in such close and formal quarters.
As Larsen and Zubernis explain, this momentary relaxation of barriers brings "fans and creators together in a carnival atmosphere that challenges accepted boundaries between fan and producer" , However, unlike conventions, where performers are "presented to the fans under highly ritualized conditions," the professional gallery exhibition presents fans and fan practices under highly ritualized conditions In so doing, the TeenWolfExhibit is not just attempting to normalize and sanction selected fannish modes of engagement and artwork; the event also attempts to normalize and sanction selected fans.
Controlling fandom—especially the fluid and amorphous Tumblr fandom—is impossible. However, by dint of their institutional power, industry can set the stage, select the actors, and determine the rituals needed to perform a sanctioned and sanctified mimicry of fandom.
The invitation uses expressly formal vernacular, befitting the opening of a formal art exhibit. Here, fans are "cordially invited" to "the grand opening" of a fan art exhibition, which in itself implies a demonstration of notable and considerable artistic skill.
The exhibit, "showcasing a collection of works," would open on June 25, , for their "viewing pleasure. John Caldwell notes that this practice is widespread, as "corporate employees—operating as stealthy lurkers and identity poseurs—actively masquerade along online fandoms and audiences" , As such, the reversal in tone is telling.
Through its rhetoric, Teen Wolf's promotional team is performing an elevation of fans and their works that has been heretofore lacking: instead of the typically affected informality, this formality implies and performs their recognition of and respect for not just the art but also the artists. This shift in tone is a marked correction of previous impropriety, especially in comparison to the occasionally dismissive address of Teen Wolf's show runner and executive producer, Jeff Davis note 1.
The most telling and contradictory linguistic move, however, is the foregrounding of fannish identities. While the people who created the fan works were framed as artists during the commission process, their fannish identity is prioritized by the invitation's language: "a collection of works from Teen Wolf fans across the globe.
Advertisement [8. The fan works were displayed, night and day, for the week leading up to the premiere of season 5. The visibility of these commissioned works cross-promoted both their imminent exhibition and the upcoming premiere. The results of Teen Wolf's various promotional campaigns were on a gradual trajectory toward visibility over the preceding 4 years, a trend that has mirrored the mainstreaming of fans and fandom.
Early fan art contest submissions were only shared on the official Tumblr, while the winning submission from the TWCreatureFeature contest was incorporated into the show for all fans and viewers to see—though, notably, it was not marked as a fan contribution. The TeenWolfExhibit is the culmination of this push toward visibility: fan art does not get much more visible than being projected, in lights, on the side of a New York City skyscraper, not to mention the subsequent exhibition in a public venue.
It is worth noting, though, that this visibility is simultaneously local and spreadable, contextualized and decontextualized. Images of the fan art projected in Times Square were posted and circulated within Tumblr fandom, retaining their context while expanding their visibility both online and in real life.
In Times Square, however, the population of New York City viewed the fan works out of context—except for the blatant "fan art" label affixed to the bottom right side of each piece.
50 shades of grey quotes | Tumblr
Figure 2. By indiscreetly tagging fan art as such, the promotional team is at once differentiating the fannish works from the professional key art and performing community through the embracing of fans. While the exhibition of these works through official channels Tumblr, the art venue, billboards grants fans a modicum of industrial legitimization, it ultimately benefits the industry. The promotional team is simultaneously rewarding and encouraging future participation in these Tumblr-based promotional campaigns while branding Teen Wolf and by extension MTV as a collaborationist property able to gain traction in a hypermediated culture.
Exhibition [9. Originally scheduled to run from June 25 to July 2, , it was later extended until July 16, The grand opening occurred just 4 days before the season 5 premiere.
Like the invitation, the event itself became a promotional paratext for the upcoming season. ADC, a well- regarded venue, is an exceedingly appropriate choice for an exhibition of promotional art. More of this art was on display at the grand opening than at any other time, as the solicited fan art submissions were also displayed via slideshow. Though these additional fan works were not created according to MTV's creative brief, they were selected with the same canonical and affirmational guidelines in mind.
However, rather than the art on display, the main attraction of the celebratory event was the question-and- answer session with Tyler Posey and Jeff Davis, shifting attention toward those with industrial authority.
In fact, upon entering the venue, attendees encountered a framing quote from show runner Jeff Davis note 2 figure 4. On this plaque, he simultaneously commends the artists for their fannish affection, legitimizes their "works of art," and reifies his industrial authority: [9. It's quite another thing to be so inspired by it that you go off and create your own works of art. More than glowing reviews or ratings, these incredible pieces of artwork might be the greatest compliment fans can give the creators and artists behind their favorite show.
It inspires us. It makes us want to do better. It makes us proud that maybe we've done a few things right. And most of all, it makes us want to keep inspiring you. Despite their intermingling and their incorporation of fans, the Teen Wolf creative and promotional teams shore up their position of authority. By legitimizing the fan art in the TeenWolfExhibit, they demonstrate their singular ability to confer that endorsement. With the exhibit's symbolic acknowledgment of fans, MTV is encouraging continued consumption and participation while also attempting to foster goodwill with an often fractious fandom.
Figure 4. The works displayed in Times Square and in the ADC gallery were selected from a pool of commissioned works, carefully chosen for their artistic skill and adherence to canon. As the invitation clearly proclaims, they are presenting "a collection of works from Teen Wolf fans across the globe. These works—a collection of contest submissions—were used without consent from or compensation to their creators.
Figure 5. FanLib, a for-profit, multifandom fan fic archive, was created in by industrial agents. The Web site, a transparent money grab, was defunct by It was highly criticized, in large part because of its draconian terms and conditions: once fans submitted their work, they forfeited their rights to their work yet retained the risk of copyright infringement Hellekson ; De Kosnik ; Scott ; Busse However, timing played a key role in its failure.
FanLib was introduced nearly simultaneously with the extensive and invasive issues around industrial censorship and containment highlighted by LiveJournal's so-called Strikethrough debacle Busse In , LiveJournal—one of the main loci of online fannish activity before Tumblr—deleted hundreds of journals and communities on the basis of claims of rape, incest, and underage pornography in fan works, despite the relative privacy afforded by age restrictions, password protections, and locked communities.
Six years after fandom effectively shut down FanLib's attempt at enclosure and control, Teen Wolf fans—already incensed by the appropriative fan art booklets— followed suit with MTV's The Collective.
Shieldsexual , one of the many fans who advocated for the site to be dismantled, articulates the reaction of many fans: "[Moving] fandom into an area where they have more control…[and] you don't hold the rights to your work…is totally gross and inappropriate on their part. They aren't the first ones to try this bullshit either, they're just cloaking it in different words.
Participation in a shared ecological system like Tumblr necessitates a degree of reciprocity. As Christopher Kelty argues, in digital spaces and in the new media landscape, "participation is now a two-way street" , Modes of containment, like FanLib or The Collective, violate the expectation of reciprocity and thus the tenets of a participatory culture. By rupturing the unspoken rules that structure fandom's gift economy, promotional teams are effectively disincentivizing the participation they need and disrespecting the fandom they are attempting to integrate.
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However, by initiating and acknowledging that breach of conduct, Teen Wolf's promotional team was subsequently able to correct their course. Rather than repeat the same mistakes, they modified their approaches to production, exhibition, and circulation. Instead of exploiting contest and The Collective entries for promotion and profit, they commissioned fan artists from within Tumblr fandom and paid them for their labor.
Rather than assuming control over the digital and physical spaces in which the art is displayed, they partnered with a third party to host the event on neutral even auspicious ground: the fan art was exhibited in a professional gallery figure 6 , implying value as well as encouraging a slippage between fan and fine art.
As much as the previous contests and The Collective were transparent efforts to control and monetize fan art, the TeenWolfExhibit was just as obviously framed as a formal, professional event to celebrate fan artists and their artwork. The promotional team behind Teen Wolf's Tumblr had learned its lesson through trial and flame, and they wanted fans to know it. Figure 6. Circulation [ They were also made available on the personal Tumblrs of the various fan artists.
At a practical level, this circulation allows the fans who do not live in the tri-state area of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut to view the fan art, which widens the promotional net for the premiere.
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At a strategic level, however, the move from controlled exhibition to chaotic circulation acknowledges fans as not "simply consumers of preconstructed messages but as people who are shaping, sharing, reframing, and remixing media content in ways which might not have been previously imagined" Booth , 2. Indeed, the refrain of validation carries through the Tumblr posts, each of which is tagged as "an official fan-made promo image.
Traditionally, fandom has operated on a gift economy marked by reciprocity and obligation that at once engender and maintain a cohesive communal structure Hyde , 66— As Karen Hellekson notes, the value of gifts is their ability to establish social ties because they are not as meaningful outside of the fannish context , In this context, the capital worth of fan works is replaced by communal value. However romantic that notion, it is worth noting that fandom has also engaged in a gift economy out of necessity.
Because of the derivative nature of fan works, copyright and intellectual property laws prohibit creators from benefiting financially from their creations—unless, of course, they can prove that creation to be transformed in a manner of "productive use" De Kosnik , Or, as this case illustrates, unless the fan artists are operating within an officially sanctioned sandbox.
In a commercial economy, however, capital is king, and fan works are often leveraged for monetary worth rather than communal value. Hyde's conception of a gift economy in particular complements the communal ethos of fandom. Tumblr's technological affordances provide a different iteration of this gift economy—gifts are primarily visual in nature and shared through reblogging—but maintain the tenets of community and reciprocity.
This iteration also affords industry an opportunity to participate in the gift economy. Rather than co-opting fan labor, removing it from its communal context, and exploiting it in a commercial economy, the Teen Wolf promotional team has clearly learned to mimic those central tenets of community and reciprocity. By posting the commissioned fan art on their official Tumblr, they are effectively preserving their communal context and participating in their fandom's gift economy.
In fact, as many fans follow the official Tumblr—to access their steady stream of fan-made GIF sets, if nothing else—the posting of the commissioned fan art allows for a wider circulation than unsanctioned channels could achieve. As marketing materials, they are generating promotional and by extension commercial capital. As expressions of fannish affect, they are gifts circulating freely throughout the community. Despite its celebratory framing, the TeenWolfExhibit does contain and sanitize fandom.
However, as a course correction from the debacle of The Collective, the Teen Wolf promotional team attempted to minimize the industrial containment somewhat by allowing the artists to post the commissioned art to their personal Tumblrs as well.
On the official Tumblr, they also took care to recognize each artist, linking back to their respective Tumblrs. This concerted effort to respect the community and reciprocity characteristics of fandom and its gift economy is indicative of the ways in which the Teen Wolf Tumblr promotional team has developed its fannish literacy over the last 4 years. Conclusion [ A diachronic perspective evidences how the Teen Wolf promotional team progressed from the blatant co-optation of contests through the ill-advised containment of The Collective to ultimately arrive at commission.
In this new phase, they solicit—rather than misappropriate—fan works and compensate fan artists for their work, an arrangement that recognizes fan labor by way of professionalization and monetization rather than exploitation and domination.
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While the next phase of their promotional progression remains to be seen, it too will bear the marks of the preceding campaigns and serve as culmination of the lessons learned. Without a thorough, chronological record of Teen Wolf's previous attempts to elicit and encourage participation in their Tumblr fandom, it would be difficult to recognize and track the ways in which their promotional strategies were honed and refined between and With the benefit of a diachronic approach, however, the context that forms and informs industry's promotional practices is readily apparent.
While it is impossible to definitively state whether or not these changes reflect a genuine change in Teen Wolf's or MTV's conceptualization of fans, they do demonstrate the development of their fannish literacy.
Though Tumblr fandom has more or less abandoned the fan mentorship model, industry has not: they are constantly observing and mimicking the codes, norms, and practices they see in fandom.
Supplementing a close analysis of the TeenWolfExhibit with a diachronic perspective makes plain the evolution of this literacy. The importance of context and temporality, as the basis of fannish literacy and the value of a diachronic perspective, cannot be overstated.
However, it is shortsighted to limit the definition of participants to fans only. The activities—fannish, promotional, or both—of all participants in a shared ecological system like Tumblr are significant. Without a more holistic study of all the moving parts that comprise various fandoms, we will not be able to develop holistic understandings of larger trends such as legitimization, monetization, and professionalization.
More pressing, perhaps, is the concern that we will not be able to keep pace with the rapidly adapting industry. If they are indeed adopting and refining fannish literacy skills in order to operate more effectively and organically within fandom, fan scholars need to adopt research models and designs that are better equipped to evaluate that adaptive process.
Acknowledgments [ I would also like to acknowledge Tisha Turk and Joshua Johnson; their article on the ecological model has been both inspirational and instructive for me as a fan scholar. Notes 1. For more information on the mercurial relationships between Teen Wolf fans, especially those on Tumblr, and producers, see Ballinger Because I was unable to physically attend the gallery exhibition in New York City, I followed the event via the TeenWolfExhibit hashtag and reconstructed the layout through photographs.
Works cited Ballinger, Jenna Kathryn. Booth, Paul.
Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Busse, Kristina. Caldwell, John. Chin, Bertha. Cooper, Marilyn. De Kosnik, Abigail.
Delhagen, Brandi. Deller, Ruth.
London: Routledge. Felschow, Laura. Ford, Sam. Gray, Jonathan. Gray, Jonathan, Cornell Sandvoss, and C. Lee Harrington. Lee Harrington, 1— Harrington, C. Lee, and Denise Bielby. Hellekson, Karen. Hellekson, Karen, and Kristina Busse. I write erotica for a living — I should read it, right? And why not do it now, before the backlash hits me repeatedly in the face again.
Several people owe their success to E.
That, to me, is amazing, and I could never hate Fifty Shades for that alone. But I can hate the story. I basically know everything about it, thanks to the hundreds of people who have criticized it openly on the net.
This lady from the U. She decided to make some cash off of her work, changed the names of the characters, and self-published the story. Her fanfic fans ate it up and it spread word-of-mouth. Also, thanks to her connections in TV advertising, she soon landed a deal with a traditional publisher. The deal became news, since it was rare for trad publishers to pick up indie writers, and being at the right time and right place, the sales of Fifty Shades ballooned. Hence, the best-selling erotica novel of all time is a household name in less than a year.
This clip is required viewing before we start. Let's Read: Fifty Shades of Grey, Chapter 3. Fifty Shades of Grey, Chapter 2.Jenkins, Henry. Pulling myself out of the past, I sip my coffee and look around. Now, I think the time has come for me to read it. BDSM is still not exactly mainstream. Fewer still consider industry's involvement in or development of these shifts.
I started self-publishing my erotica in January of In Times Square, however, the population of New York City viewed the fan works out of context—except for the blatant "fan art" label affixed to the bottom right side of each piece.
She decided to make some cash off of her work, changed the names of the characters, and self-published the story. Felschow, Laura. While the commission-for-exhibition model demonstrates a progressive evolution of Teen Wolf's fannish literacy and promotional strategies, the presence of industrial guidelines blurs the boundaries between transformative and affirmational, as well as commission and containment.
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