terms currently in use in biotechnology, genetic engineering and glossary have been selected by examination of books, dictionaries, journals and abstracts. A specialized English to Persian dictionary for Plant breeding, genetics and biotechnology. This dictionary has a good explanation for each term and can help researchers and students to find best meaning equivalence for each words. Conventional breeding programs in assisstance. specialized language in the various areas of biotechnology, and remain suitable for use by dictionary to integrate specialized wrk with studies being carried.

Biotechnology Dictionary Pdf

Language:English, Portuguese, Dutch
Country:Czech Republic
Published (Last):11.01.2016
ePub File Size:17.64 MB
PDF File Size:8.12 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Register to download]
Uploaded by: MISSY

Glossary of biotechnology terms / Kimball R. Nill 3rd ed. p. cm. ISBN 1. Biotechnology--Dictionaries. I. Title. TPF54 ′ pdf. DICTIONARY OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING . At the time of the fi rst printing of The Facts On File Dictionary of Biotech- nology and . Much of the research in biotechnology and genetic engineering has moved from the At the time of the first printing of The Facts On File Dictionary of Biotech-.

It is extremely specific and sensitive, basically simple, and inexpensive. It requires a reference standard preparation of host cell protein impurities to serve as an immunogen for preparation of polyclonal antibodies used for the assay.

Endogenous Pyrogen Assay - An in vitro assay based on the release of endogenous pyrogen produced by endotoxin from human monocytes. It does have the advantage that it can detect all substances that cause a pyrogenic response from human monocytes.

This can be accomplished with the proteins in their natural state or denatured with detergents. High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC - An instrumental separation technique used to characterize or to determine the purity of a BDP by passing the product or its component peptides or amino acids in liquid form over a chromatographic column containing a solid support matrix.

The mode of separation, i. Detection is usually by UV absorbance or by electrochemical means.

Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography HIC - HIC is accomplished in high salt medium by binding the hydrophobic portions of a protein to a slightly hydrophobic surface containing such entities as phenyl, or short- chain hydrocarbons. The protein can be eluted in a decreasing salt gradient, with the most hydrophobic proteins eluting from the column last.

Immunoassay - A qualitative or quantitative assay technique based on the measure of interaction of high affinity antibody with antigen used to identify and quantify proteins. Immunodiffusion single - An identity diffusion technique whereby the product antigen is placed in a well cut into a medium such as agar containing its complementary antibody.

The product diffuses into the medium forming a ring shaped precipitate whose density is a function of antigen concentration. Immunodiffusion double, Ouchterlony technique - A technique in which an antigen and antibody are placed in two adjacent wells cut into a medium such as agar. Ion Exchange Chromatography IEC - A gradient driven separation based on the charge of the protein and its relative affinity for the chemical backbone of the column.

They move through a pH gradient medium in an electric field until they are located at their isoelectric point where they carry no net charge. Prior to reaching their pI, protein mobility also depends upon size, conformation, steepness of pH gradient, and the voltage gradient. This method is used to detect incorrect or altered forms of a protein as well as protein impurities.

Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate Test LAL - A sensitive test for the presence of endotoxins using the ability of the endotoxin to cause a coagulation reaction in the blood of a horseshoe crab. The LAL test is easier, quicker, less costly and much more sensitive that the rabbit test, but it can detect only endotoxins and not all types of pyrogens and must therefore be thoroughly validated before being used to replace the USP Rabbit Pyrogen test.

Rights and permissions

Various forms of the LAL test include a gel clot test, a colormetric test, a chromogenic test, and a turbidimetric test. Mass Spectrometry - A technique useful in primary structure analysis by determining the molecular mass of peptides and small proteins.

Often used with peptide mapping to identify variants in the peptide composition. Useful to locate disulfide bonds and to identify post- translational modifications. Northern Blot - Technique for transferring RNA fragments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter on which they can be hybridized to a complementary DNA.

Peptide Mapping - A powerful technique which involves the breakdown of proteins into peptides using highly specific enzymes.

The enzymes cleave the proteins at predictable and reproducible amino acid sites and the resultant peptides are separated via HPLC or electrophoresis. A sample peptide map is compared to a map done on a reference sample as a confirmational step in the identity profiling of a product. It is also used for confirmation of disulfide bonds, location of carbohydrate attachment, sequence analysis, and for identification of impurities and protein degradation.

The technique involves a series of repeated cycles of high temperature denaturation, low temperature oligonucleotide primer annealing and intermediate temperature chain extension. Nucleic acid can be amplified a million- fold after 30 cycles.

Protein Quantification - Quantitation of the total amount of protein can be done by a number of assays. There is no one method that is better than the rest; each has its own disadvantages ranging from the amount of protein required to do the test to a problem with variability between proteins.

Rabbit Pyrogen Test. The rabbits are then monitored for a rise in temperature over a period of three hours. Radioimmunoassay RIA - A generic term for immunoassays having a radioactive label tag on either the antigen or antibody. Common labels include I and H3 which are used for assay detection and quantitation. Classical RIA's are competitive binding assays where the antigen and tagged antigen compete for a limited fixed number of binding sites on the antibody.

The antibody bound tagged complex is inversely proportional to the concentration of the antigen. Reverse Phase Chromatography - A chromatographical separation method based on a column stationary phase coated to give non- polar hydrophobic surface.

Analyte retention is proportional to hydrophobic reactions between solute and surface. Retention is roughly proportional to the length of the bonded carbon chain. A uniform net negative charge is imposed on the molecules by the addition of SDS. Under these conditions, migration toward the anode through a gel matrix allows separation via size, not charge, with the smaller molecules migrating the longest distance.

Biotechnology; a dictionary of terms

This technique is not reliable for sizes below a MW of ca. The sequence order of the four bases in the DNA strands determines the genetic information contained. Used to test for the presence of a particular genetically engineered organism. Field trial: A test of a new technique or variety, including biotech-derived varieties, done outside the laboratory but with specific requirements on location, plot size, methodology, etc.

Gene: The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. A gene is typically a specific segment of a chromosome and encodes a specific functional product such as a protein or RNA molecule.

Gene expression: The result of the activity of a gene or genes which influence the biochemistry and physiology of an organism and may change its outward appearance. Gene flow: The movement of genes from one individual or population to another genetically compatible individual or population.

Gene mapping: Determining the relative physical locations of genes on a chromosome. Useful for plant and animal breeding. Gene DNA sequencing: Determining the exact sequence of nucleotide bases in a strand of DNA to better understand the behavior of a gene. Genetic engineering: Manipulation of an organism's genes by introducing, eliminating or rearranging specific genes using the methods of modern molecular biology, particularly those techniques referred to as recombinant DNA techniques.

Genetically engineered organism GEO : An organism produced through genetic engineering. Genetic modification: The production of heritable improvements in plants or animals for specific uses, via either genetic engineering or other more traditional methods. Some countries other than the United States use this term to refer specifically to genetic engineering.

History, scope and development of biotechnology

Genetically modified organism GMO : An organism produced through genetic modification. Genetics: The study of the patterns of inheritance of specific traits. Genome: All the genetic material in all the chromosomes of a particular organism.

Genomics: The mapping and sequencing of genetic material in the DNA of a particular organism as well as the use of that information to better understand what genes do, how they are controlled, how they work together, and what their physical locations are on the chromosome.

Genomic library: A collection of biomolecules made from DNA fragments of a genome that represent the genetic information of an organism that can be propagated and then systematically screened for particular properties. A computer-based collection of genetic information from these biomolecules can be a "virtual genomic library.

Genotype often is evident by outward characteristics, but may also be reflected in more subtle biochemical ways not visually evident. Herbicide-tolerant crops: Crops that have been developed to survive application s of particular herbicides by the incorporation of certain gene s either through genetic engineering or traditional breeding methods. The genes allow the herbicides to be applied to the crop to provide effective weed control without damaging the crop itself.

Hybrid: The offspring of any cross between two organisms of different genotypes. Identity preservation: The segregation of one crop type from another at every stage from production and processing to distribution. This process is usually performed through audits and site visits and provides independent third-party verification of the segregation.

Insecticide resistance: The development or selection of heritable traits genes in an insect population that allow individuals expressing the trait to survive in the presence of levels of an insecticide biological or chemical control agent that would otherwise debilitate or kill this species of insect.

The presence of such resistant insects makes the insecticide less useful for managing pest populations.

Insect-resistance management: A strategy for delaying the development of pesticide resistance by maintaining a portion of the pest population in a refuge that is free from contact with the insecticide. For Bt crops this allows the insects feeding on the Bt toxin to mate with insects not exposed to the toxin produced in the plants.

Insect-resistant crops: Plants with the ability to withstand, deter or repel insects and thereby prevent them from feeding on the plant. Printed in Great Britain BOOK REVIEWS anthocyanins; flavans and proanthocyanides; c-glycosylflavonoids; biflavonoids; isoflavonoids; neoflavanoids; flavones and flavonols and their glycosides; biosynthesis; distribution and evolutionary significance in lower plants, in gymnosperms, in dicotyledons, and in monocotyledons, flavonoids and flower colour.

There is also a plant species index and a checklist of all known flavonoid structures.

Each chapter is well provided with tables, formulae and references. The book gives an excellent account of an important group of biochemicals. Oxygen Sensing in Tissues--Edited by H. Springer, Berlin. The subjects reviewed in this volume are: The articles provide an up-to-date appreciation of the internal measurement of P O 2 and its regulation in the body. Biotechnology; a Dictionary of TermsBy J. American Chemical Society, Washington.

The terms are defined in up to 15 lines of text, sometimes with diagrams. Examples of the words that are defined on pages include: Pages define lactic acid bacteria, lactifers, lactobaccilus, lag phase, lambda, lamellar settlers and laminar flow, Langmuir adsorption isotherm, laser-doppler anemometer, latex, letéléchargemente, leaching, lectins, legumes, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leuconostoc.

Methods in Enzymology. Volume , Biomembranes. Academic Press, San Diego.

Nurturing the business of biotechnology

There are 38 reviews in I0 sections. The volume provides an excellent account of the methods used to study the Na-K ATPase system in different tissues. Macmillan, London. There are 53 reviews in this volume.

They are in two main sections.The Investigator should have a copy of the firm's environmental assessment, addressing the manufacture of the product that is the subject of the GMP inspection. Another least hydrophobic. That endophytes might be a source of novel compounds was given considerable credibility through the discovery of taxol synthesis by endophytic fungi and a variety of other antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer metabolites BCKDH is necessary single-stranded overhangs that fi rst form for the metabolism of the three branched- hydrogen bonds before the ligation step.

In this way, the dense chemically inert salt, cesium chlo- centromere binding factor forms a physi- ride, and centrifuged at high speeds for cal connection between the chromosome hours to days.

FELICIDAD from Irving
I do love exploring ePub and PDF books kindheartedly. See my other articles. I'm keen on papermache.