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It is well known that construction materials are among the most commonly used materials, and have a clear negative impact on the environment. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of using waste from date palm trees in concrete as a natural alternative to the conventional fibers. Previous studies concentrated on examining the behavior of lower dosages or short length of male date palm surfaces fibers MDPSF in concrete.
In this study, MDPSF concrete specimens made by using higher dosages and longer length of fiber were tested. The mechanical properties of the date palm tree fiber have been investigated.
In addition, flexural and compressive behavior of concrete specimens reinforced with different ratios and length of palm tree fiber, were studied. Vo, and P.
Navard, Treatments of plant biomass for cementitious building materials-A review. Construction and Building Materials. Mo, et al.
Journal of Cleaner Production. Pacheco-Torgal and S. Jalali, Cementitious building materials reinforced with vegetable fibres: A review.
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Yan and N. Claramunt, et al. Cement and Concrete Composites. Hassan, M. Mancini, Editor.
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Kriker, et al. Hussein, M. Abani, et al. Energy Procedia, 74 , pp. Taheri and R.
Salwa, Study and modeling of the shrinkage in the palm fiber reinforced concrete, in Department of Irrigation and Civil Engineering. Djoudi, et al. Makhroufi, Contribute to the study of the properties of palm fiber concrete in the dry and warm areas, in Department of Irrigation and Civil Engineering.
According to these sources it was God who created the world. As in the past, current Muslim religious scholars tend to reject the signs indicating the end of the world at the present time. It is rather the case that this material has been analyzed in the form of case studies from the multifaceted opinions and arguments of which the present subject is a part. See David B. ArOr — Issue On the contrary, apocalypticists thrive within Christianity for example, we can mention the case of Hal Lindsey, the evangelical American author of several best sellers, who has identified current political events as signs of the end-time.
They are also present in Judaism and other religious communities, having varying degrees of influence. Videos and other posts receive many clicks, yet this does not demonstrate the influence of such posts and links due to the fact that empirical studies, which examine the actual reaction to this material, have not yet been undertaken.
From the numerous figures, motifs and events which are addressed in the religious sources as representing signs of the end, the narrative reconfiguration of three particular figures or motifs can be determined as being central and will, therefore, be subjected to further elaboration. Secondly, we will address the tribulations and fitan, and thirdly we will consider the political victory over the perceived enemy. The present narratives, on which we focus in this article, are manifold and rather diverse.
The eschatological signs can be further divided into major and minor signs. Smith and Yvonne Y. An example of the third classification is the mountain of gold that will appear in the Euphrates.
The Muslim eschatological traditions21 are rather similar to those that appear in respective Jewish and Christian literature sources, especially with regard to the forms, themes, images and symbols.
S ; Alfons H. In line with the chaos associated with a declining world, the savageness of society is mentioned alongside the spread of immoral deeds, such as drinking alcohol, promiscuity and the lack of control over women.
This figure can be interpreted as being equivalent to the Anti- Christ, who is accompanied by other eschatological signs, such as cosmic changes and catastrophes in the form of wars etc. His aim is to disconnect the Islamic umma from their religious beliefs and values.
One of his amazing lies is that he is able to wake the dead, make it rain and fill the earth with blossom. He can deliver prosperity or poverty, either as a reward for allegiance or punishment for rejection. Others locate his origins in Northern Africa or in the Jewish community of Isfahan. It is said that he will besiege Jerusalem with 70, fighters, most of them Jews and women.
An Islamic Perspective, Freemasonry has something in the region of , members in England and Wales, yet the British public hardly knows anything about them. It may also surprise you to know that all Christian organizations are masonic institutions.
The first was published by David Musa 29 Cf. Emphasis in original. This is the first time in the history of this world where all so-called civilized but in fact criminal minded people joined hands together to fight against Allah and his commandments.
Example: Germany, Japan — were not permitted by their constitution to send their troops overseas. This is exactly what was happening in Afghanistan. He carries weapons on his back and on his clothes there are symbols such as the hammer and sickle, as well as the US-flag, while the Star of David is hung around his neck.
FRANKE global political position of Muslims as part of the divine plan, but also ultimately include reference to the victory of the Muslims. He is a liminal figure in eschatological narratives, leading to the final salvation status. He shows himself to the public as a human being - a faithful follower and saviour of the Jews, as the one who built the [Zionist] entity and to whom the Palace of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia belongs, in order to monitor the White Palace.
Shaykh Muhammad al-Qasim, Signs of the hour, 5. He will go to the empty land of Jurf, and put up his camp. They simplify complex or incomprehensible facts by providing precise schemes with a clear identification of who is a friend and who is a foe. On the one hand, it is caused by demonic powers, and on the other hand, this is done only temporarily, because in these eschatological constructs of the future the final victory is reserved for Muslims.
In one army of the Muslims? His name shall be similar to my name. FRANKE [in ; one of the greatest military defeats of the crusaders which led to the fact that subsequently Jerusalem came again under the rule of the Muslims]. As an eschatological savior, who invokes a break with the existing political order, this figure is perfectly suitable to be instrumentalized for political purposes. It was one of the most important provinces of the Caliphate during its classical period 8th—10th century.
The marginalization of the figure is probably due to the fact that he is associated with the Shia. This implies — especially on the part of Sunni Islamists — the unwanted rejection of political action until his return, and their concept of the clergy as being in a subsidiary role. He is then glorified as the military leader who helps the umma to victory.
Thereby, their own political objectives gain additional legitimacy and even the gloss of a divine promise. He thus offers guidelines as to how these traditions can be correctly applied to real-life events.
We should not sit idle, waiting for victory to come down from heaven or to emerge from the earth without any effort on our part. Although doubts as to their authenticity have been expressed on various websites and discussed in certain forums,63 they are often cited in contemporary apocalyptic narratives, especially in forums, videos or websites in which lay- people are able to post their comments.
Nothing will repulse them until they set up in Jerusalem. Then it [the treasure] will not go to any of them. Then black banners will come from the direction of the east. Then they will kill you as no people ever had been killed. Then he [the prophet] mentioned something, which I [the narrator] cannot remember. Jean-Pierre Filiu, Apocalypse in Islam, 10— Fitan 34, FRANKE In relation to the occurrence and meaning of the black banners, different interpretations can be found, not only with reference to various traditions but also in contemporary materials.
In their propaganda material there are several references to the approaching, or rather the dawning of, the Last Hour. Consequently, prominent religious figures have recently addressed and interpreted the role of IS within the context of religious sources, such as Sheikh Hamza Yusuf.
He cites and translates it slightly differently: They have hearts of iron. They call to the truth, but they are not from the people of the truth …. They have long hair, wearing it like women.
Look at all the pictures of these guys with their long hair. Their hair is long …. Yusuf continues to warn about other sects and tribulations.
It has been reproduced on numerous websites and can be read in various languages.
This state of inner tribulations results from distress and hardship within the umma. Moreover, it is also a time of conflict and war 71 Ibid. Hamza Yusuf continues: And then he said that it will be just one fitna after another.
People start losing their faith. They are killing Muslims. They will leave this religion like an arrow that is shot out of the bow.
These people are not from the prophet s. They have nothing to do with the man who was sent as mercy for all the world [sic]. This building complex, which is located in Mecca in close proximity to the Grand Mosque, was recently completed in Standing at a height of meters 1, feet , it even counts as the fourth tallest freestanding structure in the world.
In his frequently downloaded video recording of a speech81 made at the Muslim Students Association of the USA and Canada, Hamza Yusuf states that many eschatological prophecies are becoming a reality in the form of current events: … These are signs before your very eyes. We are seeing signs of our prophet s. He [the prophet] told us that you will see the buildings of Mecca reach the mountain tops.
The buildings of Mecca will reach the mountaintops. And this is happening in our lifetime. When I first went to Mecca there were no buildings even close to the tops of the mountains of Mecca.
I was on one of the tallest mountains in Mecca and you can see the clock tower now surpasses the mountains. The prophet s. So the clock tower — what do they call it in Saudi Arabia?
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The hour is drawing near. All of our lives are dissipating. It is contextualized in the Islamic traditions and regardless of whether the sayings of the prophet are interpreted literally or metaphorically, this clock tower is highlighted as a manifest eschatological sign.
In particular, their authors mention the locations in which current conflicts for Muslims will take place and which are consequently denoted in binary Islamist discourses as the territory of the enemy. They place the victory in a national context and within spatial limits by defining the decline of the modern state of Israel as a territorial victory. In both cases, they will be defeated by their enemies. These verses can be interpreted heterogeneously: the first defeat is usually suggested as being the seizure of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in B.
In many contemporary Islamist-Palestinian discourses this second increase in power is associated with the founding of the state of Israel and the decline will thus be the subsequent destruction of the Jewish state. But if it is not, it is doubtlessly a preparation for it. Therefore, jihad must be announced and all other slogans cease.
Lisa Franke, At the doors of paradise.
Iraq After ISIS
Thus, he is aware of the possibility that his analysis of the prophecies might not be accurate and might not coincide with the actual outcome. Nonetheless, he identifies the on-going fighting between Israelis and Palestinians as an indicator of the end of time, thus being an eschatological sign in Islamic understanding.
Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
The author of this IS propaganda article interprets it as meaning an increase in slavery before the end of time. It will be broken and defeated, just as all your previous campaigns were broken and defeated, except that this time we will raid you thereafter, and you will never raid us. We will conquer your Rome, break your crosses, and enslave your women, by the permission of Allah, the Exalted.Author had to explain to us. Method for determination of compressive strength of concrete cubes, B.
The hour is drawing near. Assmann, Jan.
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