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Netter's Cardiology, 2e (Netter Clinical Science) 2nd Edition Your browser indicates if you've visited this linkNetter's Cardiology, 2e (Netter. Netter's Cardiology, 2nd Edition, by Marschall S. Runge, Cam Patterson, You'll rapidly access complete introductions to common issues in cardiology, including annotated references of the most ISBN: Today, in this article, we are going to share with you Netter's Cardiology 2nd Edition PDF using our direct download links. We hope that you find.
Netter, MD, physician and artist, died in Learn more about the physician—artist whose work has inspired the Netter Reference Collection: www. Carlos A.
Netter’s Cardiology 2nd Edition PDF Free Download [Direct Link]
Machado, MD Carlos A. Machado was chosen by Novartis to be Dr. He continues to be the main artist who contributes to the Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations. Self-taught in medical illustration, cardiologist Carlos A. Machado has contributed meticulous updates to some of Dr. His dedication to researching each topic and subject he paints places him among the premier medical illustrators at work today.
Learn more about his background and see more of his art at: www. First, we thank the contributing authors. All are current or former faculty members at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, or have close ties to the institution.
We had a solid foundation on which to build the second edition, thanks to the hard work of the first-edition contributing authors, many of whom we were fortunate to have continue on to this edition.
We are also grateful for the invaluable editorial contribution that Dr.
We are sorry.
Magnus Ohman made to the first edition. Special recognition goes to John A.
Craig, MD, and Carlos A. Machado, MD.
They are uniquely talented physician— artists who, through their work, brought to life important concepts in medicine in the new and updated figures included in this text. We are also indebted to Ms. Angela Clotfelter-Rego, whose superb organizational skills helped make this text a reality.
Special thanks go to Carolyn Kruse for excellent editing and Dr. Deborah Montague for invaluable reviewing and updating of the pharmacologic information. We would especially like to acknowledge our families: our wives—Susan Runge, Meg Stouffer, and Kristine Patterson— whose constant support, encouragement, and understanding made completion of this text possible; our children—Thomas, Elizabeth, William, John, and Mason Runge; Mark, Jeanie, Joy, and Anna Stouffer; and Celia, Anna Alyse, and Graham Patterson—who inspire us and remind us that there is life beyond the computer; and, finally, our parents—whose persistence, commitment, and work ethic got us started on this road many, many years ago.
Contributors Marschall S. Mauro, MD Ernest H.
Simpson, Jr. Smith, Jr. Walsh, MD John H. Runge, E.
Magnus Ohman, and George A. Stouffer T he ability to determine whether disease is present or absent—and how that patient should be treated—is the ultimate goal for clinicians evaluating patients with suspected heart disease.
Despite the number of diagnostic tests available, never has the importance of a careful history and physical examination been greater. Opportunities for error in judgment are abundant, and screening patients for coronary risk using a broad and unfocused panel of laboratory and noninvasive tests can lead to incorrect diagnoses and unnecessary testing. Selection of the most appropriate test and therapeutic approach for each patient is based on a skillfully performed history and physical examination.
Furthermore, interpretation of any test results is based on the prior probability of disease, which again is based on the history and physical. While entire texts have been written on cardiac history and physical examination, this chapter specifically focuses on features of the cardiac history and the cardiovascular physical examination that help discern the presence or absence of heart disease. The Concept of Prior Probability The history and physical examination should allow the clinician to establish the prior probability of heart disease—that is, the likelihood that the symptoms reported by the patient result from heart disease.
In patients with a very low risk of CHD based on clinical findings, exercise stress testing resulted in a large number of false-positive test results. Conversely, in patients with a very high risk of CHD based on clinical findings, exercise stress testing can result in false-negative test results—an equally undesirable outcome, because patients with significant coronary artery disease CAD and their physicians may be falsely reassured that no further evaluation or treatment is necessary.
Emphasis is increasing on quantifying prior probability to an even greater degree using various mathematical models. This is a useful approach in teaching and may be clinically feasible in some diseases. However, for the majority of patients with suspected heart disease, categorizing risk as low, intermediate, and high is appropriate, reproducible, and feasible in a busy clinical practice.
Therefore, obtaining the history and physical examination represents a key step before any testing, to minimize use of inappropriate diagnostic procedures. Key components are assessment of the chief complaint; careful questioning for related, often subtle symptoms that may further define the chief complaint; and determination of other factors that help categorize the likelihood of disease.
Major symptoms of heart patients include chest discomfort, dyspnea, palpitations, and syncope or presyncope. Chest Discomfort Determining whether chest discomfort results from a cardiac cause is often a challenge.
The most common cause of chest discomfort is myocardial ischemia, which produces angina pectoris.
Many causes of angina exist, and the differential diagnosis for chest discomfort is extensive Box Angina that is reproducible and constant in frequency and severity is often referred to as stable angina. For the purposes of this chapter, stable angina is a condition that occurs when CAD is present and coronary blood flow cannot be increased to accommodate for increased myocardial demand.
However, as discussed in Chapters 12 through 14, there are many causes of myocardial ischemia, including fixed coronary artery stenoses and endothelial dysfunction, which leads to reduced vasodilatory capacity.
A description of chest discomfort can help establish whether the pain is angina or of another origin.
First, characterization of the quality and location of the discomfort is essential Fig. Chest discomfort because of myocardial ischemia may be described as pain, a tightness, a heaviness, or simply an uncomfortable and difficult-to-describe feeling. The discomfort can be localized to the mid-chest or epigastric area or may be characterized as pain in related areas, including the left arm, both arms, the jaw, or the back. The radiation of chest discomfort to any of these areas increases the likelihood of the discomfort being angina.
Second, the duration of discomfort is important, because chest discomfort due to cardiac causes generally lasts minutes. Likewise, pain that lasts for hours, on many occasions, in the absence of objective evidence of myocardial infarction MI , is not likely to be of coronary origin. Third, the presence of accompanying symptoms should be considered. Chest discomfort may be accompanied by other symptoms including dyspnea, diaphoresis, or nausea , any of which increase the likelihood that the pain is cardiac in origin.
However, the presence of accompanying symptoms is not needed to define the discomfort as angina.
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Fourth, factors that precipitate or relieve the discomfort should be evaluated. When exercise precipitates chest discomfort, relief after cessation of exercise substantiates the diagnosis of angina.
Sublingual nitroglycerin also relieves angina, generally over a period of minutes. Instant relief or relief after longer periods lessens the likelihood that the chest discomfort was angina.
Netter’s Cardiology 2nd Edition PDF Free Download [Direct Link]
Although the presence of symptoms during exertion is important in assessing CHD risk, individuals, especially sedentary ones, may have angina-like symptoms that are not related to exertion. These include postprandial and nocturnal angina or angina that occurs while the individual is at rest.
Angina can also occur in persons with fixed CAD and increased myocardial oxygen demand due to anemia, hyperthyroidism, or similar conditions Box Clemmons Sanoff and Mark A. Socinski Nichols and Thomas R. Griggs Substance Abuse and the Heart David A. Tate Patterson and Joseph J. Eron Vaughn Yang Cardiovascular Epidemiology Smith, Jr Genetics in Cardiovascular Disease Marschall S.Netter's cardiology Author: Netter, MD and other illustrators working in the Netter tradition.
You may send this item to up to five recipients. As in the first edition, we chose to use authors from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill or those with close ties to the university. This book oozes excellence in production values, illustrations not surprisingly since it is branded as Netter but from a reader point of view, the quality of information is excellent.
Please enter the message. I have a great interest in the dynamics of heart, in its physiology, anatomy, and diseases. Tate It is ideal for a wide range of healthcare professionals including those in primary and secondary care and although it may be a little too detailed for some medical students, others will find it an excellent resource. In , he accepted his first faculty position at the University of Texas Medical Branch, and in , Dr.