Strategies for Effective soeprolrendiele.gq - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book Resources: Some suggested readings: Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R. T., Holubec, E.J., and Roy, P. (). Killen Teaching Strategies. Effective teaching strategies: lessons from research and practice. Author. Killen, Roy, Edition. 4th ed. Published. South Melbourne, Vic.: Thomson Social. Teaching strategies for quality teaching and learning / Roy Killen. Also Titled. Teaching stategies for outcomes-based education. Author. Killen, Roy,
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Instructor resources. • Roy Killen (book author) for the PowerPoint presentations. • Christine McGunnigle (University of Notre Dame) for the early childhood. develop a unique strategy that can be used for effective teaching and learning in EMS. Roy () and Esau () denote that critical action research and In addition, Killen () stated that assessment becomes an integral Lincoln (Eds), The Sage handbook of qualitative research, (4th ed .). Los. Teaching strategies for quality teaching and learning by Roy Killen, an introduction to the principles of effective teaching and learning, with.
These ideas are consistent with one of the basic principles of outcomes-based education success leads to further success Spady, As the Quality Teaching model emphasises, it is difficult for :Indents tobe successful if the criteria for success are not explicit. You can dothis by helping learners toreflect on the processes that led totheir success. If students understand why they were succe ssful in learning, they will be more likely to be successful in the future, even if they choo ie to use a different approach tolearning.
Behaviours that s upport the key as pects of effective teaching The above summary suggests that to be an effective teacher you need the knowledge and skill topresent information clearly, using a variety of strateg.
Fromthis, it she uld be apparent that effective teaching is the result of patterns of teacher behaviours rather than isolated behaviours, and that the aspects of effective teaching briefly described above Jonot provide a total picture of teacher effectiveness. The literature contains evidence of n any other teacher behaviours that, in various circumstances, have been shown to contripute to learner achievement: and hence teacher effectiveness.
They are sometimes referred toas enabling behaviours or supporting behaviours because they enable you toincorporate effective teaching practices intoyour lessons.
Some enabling behaviours with strong research support are use of student ideas, structuring, questioning, probing and enthusiasm. Using students' ideas One of the best ways tomaintain students' interest is toinvolve themactively in the lesson and you can dothis during direct instruction by using the stu :lents' ideas as an integral part of your lesson.
Flanders suggests that students' ideas can be used in five basic ways: acknouvledging repeating students' main statements , nio4cying rephrasing a student's idea in the teacher's words , applying using the student's idea to tike the next step in solving a Chapter 5 Using direct in truction as a teaching strategy problem , comparing showing similarities and differences in the ideas of several students and summarising using what was said by students torevise key points.
Although there does not appear tobe any strong evidence that using these strategies will directly enhance student achievement, they do appear to promote learning by increasing students' engagement in the learning process Emmer et al.
Brophy makes similar claims and Borich suggests that use of students' ideas can increase the clarity and variety of a lesson, and encourage student engagement in learning. Your personal experience probably tells you that learners are encouraged when their ideas are valued. The most important reason for using students' ideas is that it enables you to build explicitly on the students' prior knowledge. The process of soliciting ideas fromstudents can give you insight intothe attitudes, understandings and misconceptions that they bring tothe learning episode vital information that you need tohelp themlearn.
Structuring You should not expect learners to be able to make sense of new information unless it is organised and presented in ways that make it easy tounderstand. Imagine how difficult it would be tounderstand the information in this book if it were not divided intochapters and if there were noheadings or subheadings!
This organisation is referred toas structuring. Good lesson structuring starts with a well-planned introduction something that will grab the learners' attention and spark their curiosity.
Four of the common ways of doing this are: 1. Start the lesson with a question toprompt learners tothink about a particular issue. Provide a brief overview of where the lesson will take learners to help themdevelop a framework for the lesson. Use an advance organiser tocreate a general context intowhich more specific information can be integrated.
Simply tell the learners what outcomes they will be achieving in the lesson sothat they have clear goals for their learning. The most effective introductions show the learners where the lesson will take them and how they will get there. The various forms of structuring that you can use at the beginning of your lessons are sometimes called 'pre-instructional strategies' because they come before the main instruction.
The chief purposes of pre-instructional strategies are to get the students interested in the lesson and to help themfocus on the main points of the lesson. Once the learners know where the lesson will take them, show themhow they will get there. With young children you might have tojust tell themwhat they will be doing. With older students you might be able touse a flowchart, or simply list the main points that you will be discussing in the lesson.
If this map is written on the board, you can refer to it as you move fromeach main point to the next, thus helping the learners to understand the structure and sequence of your lesson and tosee how all the main ideas are related.
They are or 'Before you try to calculate First wr will consider Statements such as these prepare the learners for what is tofollow thi:; is sometimes called giving the learners a 'mental set'. You can alsouse comments tolink parts of your lesson. For example, 'The main problems that our discussion has identified so Far are At appropriate Joints in the lesson you should sunamarise important information.
Sothat learners know ei ,cactly what you are doing, you should make statements such as 'The most important things you have learned in this lesson are Next lesson we will Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind is tF at the structure of your lesson must make sense toyour students. If they lose the plot, they t re unlikely tolearn much from your lesson. You will make learning easier for your students if you highlight main points, proceed in small steps at an appropriate pace and give themopportunities to check that they understand what you are talking about.
In a more general consideration of structuring that g Des beyond individual lessons, Rosenshine and Stevens identified six instructional activities that they claimed a be essential towell-structured teaching. They were regular reviews of past learning, well- organised presentation of each lesson, guided practice for stuients on new tasks, feedback students on their learning, independent practice for students once basics have been mastered and systematic weekly reviews of course content.
All of these teacher activities place a clear focus on what we want students to learn and that it one of the basic principles of outcomes-based education. Gronlund, N. How to write and use instructional objectives 4th ed. Gage, N. Educational psychology 4th ed.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Principal, mentor, or peer teacher Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 2: Select two objectives from each of five of your past lessons ten objectives in all.
Review these objectives by asking yourself: 1. Does this objective contribute to the attainment of a goal? Is the objective a clear statement of specific and observable student outcomes? Can the mastery of the objective be evaluated easily during classroom teaching? Rewrite your objectives, if necessary.
Have a principal, mentor, or peer teacher give you written feedback. Evidence of Completion: Previously written objectives and revised objectives; written summary of feedback Resources: Principal, mentor, or peer teacher Some suggested readings: Designing learning objectives.
ED Strategy 3: Well-written instructional objectives adequately represent the breadth and depth of knowledge and skill to be learned by students. Review your lesson plans from the last four weeks.
Are your objectives in only one domain? If they are, you are probably over emphasizing that one dimension of learning. For your next unit, write at least two objectives in each of the other domains. Share the objectives with the principal, mentor, or a colleague. Make an outline of the major topics, ideas, concepts, and principles that you plan to cover in your next unit. Show how the topics and concepts that will be presented during the unit are interconnected and how they will contribute to the achievement of the unit goals.
Prepare preliminary lesson plans incorporating these concepts. Check the instructional objectives to be sure that they are sequenced according to the original outline. Reflective planning teaching, and evaluation: K Revise the Written revised lesson plans based on responses to lesson plans the following questions.
Revision is needed for "no" responses: 1. Are opportunities provided to encourage learning at more than one cognitive or performance level?
Strategies for Effective Teaching.pdf
Are new ideas and concepts related to past and future learning? Will the purpose and importance of topics and activities be communicated to the students? Are potential areas or points of difficulty emphasized? Are essential elements of knowledge emphasized? Is the presentation of the lesson's content structured to encourage the development of thinking-skills? Share your revisions with the principal, mentor, or a colleague. As you review each of the lesson objectives, ask yourself: 1.
What teaching methods do I plan to implement to achieve each objective? What learning tasks will the students complete to achieve each objective?
Write down the teaching method or learning task for each objective. Ask the principal, mentor, or peer teacher to provide feedback. After completing this assignment, proceed to Strategy 2. Resources: Principal, mentor, or peer teacher Strategy 2: After reviewing the referenced learning activities that you developed in Strategy 1, plan a sequence for implementing the learning tasks and teaching methods.
Prepare a written rationale for the planned five -day sequence. Do the activities seem to be logically sequenced? Do subsequent activities build on knowledge gained in previous activities? Are a variety of activities planned? Evidence of Completion: Completed fiveday sequence and rationale Resources: Principal, mentor, or peer teacher Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 3: Successful lesson planning requires that teachers, prior to the beginning of the lesson, think about what is required for planned activities.
While a proficient teacher may not necessarily need to write down in the lesson plan all of the details of how an activity will be conducted, the proficient teacher has a mental plan for the activity.
Develop capacity for mentally thinking through how a learning activity will be conducted. Review the sequence of learning activities that were developed in Strategy 2 or in another lesson plan. Separate the complex teaching methods and learning tasks into component parts or specific steps as needed.
For example, the activity "map reading activity using gloves and workbook page 32" might be broken down into the following steps: 1. Put the directions for the activity on the blackboard before class begins.
Review the directions for the activity with the whole class. Break students into small groups. Group facilitators get globes from the back table or storage cabinet.
Groups cooperatively complete page Allow 20 minutes. Group facilitator collects workbook pages to be turned in. The teacher leads the whole class in a de-briefing activity 5 minutes. After the complex activities have been broken into specific steps, the teacher should review the instructional objectives. Will the students be able to demonstrate the stated learner outcomes after the outcomes have been completed? Identifies and plans for individual differences Evidence of Completion: Written summary of individual differences in a class profile Strategy 1: Compile a class list in which the students are grouped based on academic performance levels i.
Several sources of data might be used as a basis for groupings: standardized test scores, teacher observations, cumulative files, exams, and written work. Additional information might be obtained by administering a short pretest or questionnaire to assess students' previous experiences and knowledge of the topics that will be covered during the planned unit.
Record other individual differences that you noticed during recent lessons, including those dealing with reading proficiency, developmental levels, and student needs. After identifying these individual differences, summarize the findings and incorporate them in a class profile.
Write several learning objectives that are appropriate for the majority of the students in your class. Then consider what objectives need to be added or adapted to accommodate the more proficient students. Similarly, add or modify the objectives to accommodate the less proficient students. After writing these learning objectives, review each student's name on the class listing to ensure that the objectives that you constructed accommodate the range of students in your class. The center should include a variety of learning tasks for students of average, above average, and below average ability levels.
Learning centers for child-centered classrooms. Finkelstein, J. Children in American history. Instructor, pp. Zaidel, L. The theme's the thing.
Ovoian, G. Can you dig it? Social Studies Review, pp. Wait, S. Center your reading instruction. Activities should accommodate students who finish early, who need extra help, or who require a challenge. Examples include activities involving computer assisted instruction, folder games, creative and differentiated worksheets, manipulatives, hands-on activities, research, and logic games.
Circles of learning. Hilke, E. Cooperative learning. Fastback Mosston, M.
Teaching physical education 3rd ed. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing. Slavin, R. Cooperative learning: Student teams.
Student team learning: A practical guide to cooperative learning 3rd ed. Identifies materials, other than standard classroom materials, as needed for lesson Strategy 1: Successful teachers identify the materials needed for lessons as they write their lesson plans. Make a list of the aids and materials that you want to use for a one-week unit.
Specify the order in which they will be used relative to the whole unit, and within each lesson. Summarize how this sequence will enhance the mastery of the instructional objectives. What materials on your list are available in your classroom? In your school?
In your district's media center? How will you obtain these aids and materials? Ask a principal or peer teacher provide suggestions. Use their feedback to make revisions.
Performance Domain I: Planning
Evidence of Completion: Revised sequential list of aids and materials. Resources: Principal, mentor, or colleague. Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 2: Supplemental materials that are needed for classroom activities should be identified in the lesson plan. Prepare a variety of activities, handouts, and worksheets that require minimal teacher directions for students who complete classwork early during lessons of an upcoming unit.
Evidence of Completion: Supplemental materials for lessons within the unit, lesson plans Resources: None Strategy 3: Teachers should identify in the lesson plan those aids and materials required for special-needs students.
List students in your class who have impairments i. Evidence of Completion: Floor plan arrangement, description of modifications Resources: School records, teacher-constructed class profiles See Strategies for Attribute IA3.
Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 4: Teachers who use teaching strategies that involve differentiated grouping should identify in the lesson plans the aids and materials that will be needed for each group. See Strategies listed for Attribute IA3. For any lesson that uses a grouping strategy, describe in the lesson plan the aids and materials appropriate for each ability group.
Standard aids and materials can be differentiated by providing additional or more challenging tasks to the higher ability students or by specifying varying performance expectations.
Seek suggestions and feedback from a colleague or principal. Evidence of Completion: Class list, lesson plan with both differentiated aids and materials specified Resources: Principal, mentor, or colleague Strategy 5: Compile a mater list of the instructional aids and materials available to your.
Include personal resources, other classroom teachers, library or media center, community resources, and students.
Effective Teaching Strategies
Be sure to include supplemental aids and materials. Evidence of Completion: List of available aids and materials in the lesson plan Resources: Principal, mentor, or colleague List of Aids and Materials Appendix O Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 6: Successful teachers utilize knowledge of their students to select the best types of aids and materials for instruction.
Conduct a student inventory to determine the cultural, economic, linguistic, personal, and social differences among your students. Use this information to develop and select materials and aids for instruction. Incorporate these aids and materials into your lesson plans. For example, to motivate students who like sports, a teacher might include the use of sports stories to introduce vocabulary words.
Evidence of Completion: Results of student interest inventory, lesson plans Resources: Some suggested reading: Partridge, M. Special opportunities: Students as resource people. Social Education, 53 3 , Example of a Student Inventory Appendix I Strategy 7: The type of learning to take place influences the selection of appropriate aids and materials. Analyze the upcoming instructional unit.
Identify the objectives that encourage students to comprehend, apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information rather than recall simple facts and knowledge. What aids and materials were you planning to use for the knowledge level objectives? What aids and materials will be used for the higherorder objectives? Summarize your use of aids and materials for different types of learning.
Share your summary with the principal or colleague. Make a list of what is available in your school or district. Determine what is available for use in your classroom. Write a lesson plan that uses computerized instructional technology.
Share it with your principal. Microcomputers and the classroom teacher. Fastback Collis, B. Computers, curriculum, and whole-class instruction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Waiting until the end of the chapter or until the end of the unit to assess students' progress often means finding out that there is a considerable gap between what the teacher thought was taught and what the teacher wants the students to know.
Effective teachers assess students progress continuously so that they can adjust their teaching and ensure that students are learning.
Select and use at least one of the Daily Evaluation Strategies for each lesson. How much did students actually know? Adjust your teaching so that students have learned the desired concepts and skills before moving to the next lesson. Resources: Daily Evaluation Strategies Appendix P Principal Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 2: In planning for student evaluation, the relative importance of what is being learned guides the teacher in selecting appropriate methods for evaluation.
Make a list of all your objectives for a unit.
Assign a percent weight to each objective based on its relative importance in the unit. For example: Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 And so on. Evidence of Completion: Lesson plans with questions Strategy 3: Oral and written questioning can be an effective method of daily evaluation. Include for each day in a lesson plan questions that will measure that day's objectives. These questions can be given for homework or used for brainstorming.
They can be answered by the students as a written assignment and turned in during class, etc. Resources: None Performance Domain I: Planning Strategy 4: Ask a colleague to look at your daily questions and help you determine whether the questions measure your objectives. Evidence of Completion: Written summary of colleague's analysis of questions Evidence of Completion: List of most appropriate questions Resources: Colleague Strategy 5: Teachers can use student input to verify that students have achieved stated outcomes.
In this way, students become more involved in their own evaluation. For example, have students make up "test" questions, answer them, and turn them in as part of a class or homework assignment. Select the most appropriate questions and discuss them with the class: e.
Classroom Management. Conscious Discipline. The assessment crisis: The absence of assessment FOR learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83 10 , Fundamental assessment principles for teachers and school administrators. You don't have to be a statistician to use data: A process for data-based decision making in schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 91 2 , Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy.
Bringing evidence-based policy to education: A recommended strategy for the U. Department of Education. School reform for realists. The effects of portfolio-based advice on the development of self-directed learning skills in secondary vocational education.There are also helpful "at a glance" tables that condense the information.
Make an outline of the major topics, ideas, concepts, and principles that you plan to cover in your next unit. For example, to motivate students who like sports, a teacher might include the use of sports stories to introduce vocabulary words. Performance Domain II: Management Strategy 2: The teacher serves as a powerful role model for demonstrating prosocial behaviors.
The various forms of structuring that you can use at the beginning of your lessons are sometimes called 'pre-instructional strategies' because they come before the main instruction.
Does the IEP indicate the settings and situations in which skills will be taught?
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